Piano Manufacturers of The World

Piano Brands Of The World:


Company Website:
Owner: Paulson & Co.
Country of Origin: Manhattan, USA
Year Established: 1853
Related Brands: August Forster, Bluthner, Bosendorfer CS, Grotrian, Seiler, Sauter, Schimmel Konzert, Shigeru Kawai, Yamaha CF, Steingraeber, C. Bechstein, Bosendorfer, Fazioli

Steinway pianos are made by Steinway & Sons in Queen’s, New York and Hamburg Germany

Warranty: 5 years parts and labour, applicable to the original purchaser only.


Undoubtedly one of – if not the most – recognizable name in piano manufacturing, Steinway has been producing high-quality pianos since 1853 when German immigrant Heinrich Engelhard Steinweg (eventually known as Henry E. Steinway) opened a small workshop in Manhattan after years of piano building in Germany. After obtaining over a hundred design patents, multiple location changes, and anglicizing the family name (Steinweg to Steinway), Steinway would emerge as the dominant force in American piano manufacturing. In the 1880s, wanting to expand to the European market, Steinway opened a facility in Hamburg Germany to supply Europe and the rest of the world.

Along the way, Steinway also became one of the most successful brands in the world, pioneering many of the marketing techniques that we would now call “product placement” and “product synergy”… Steinway Halls in London, New York, and Germany became the center of culture for affluent western industrialists and financiers, and Steinway’s Artist program created and has more or less maintained a monopoly on touring classical pianist’s choice of piano.

Today, Steinway still produces pianos in both New York and Germany, with the New York factory supplying North, Central, and South America, and the German factory supplying the rest of the world. While Steinway is no longer family-owned and has changed hands several times throughout the last few decades, the company has had stable ownership since 2013 after it was acquired by a New York based private equity firm. While pianos from both factories are renowned for their quality, pianos from German factories are often regarded as superior, though there has been a substantial effort in recent years to bring the American factory up to the standard established by it’s German counterpart.

Steinway also markets and distributes the Boston Piano and Essex Piano lines, a mid and entry-level offering made in Asia by Kawai and Pearl River respectively. (Steinway has recently added Samick’s Indonesian factory as a Boston supplier in addition to Kawai Japan)

Steinway’s New York factory produces 6 sizes of grand pianos, ranging from the 5’1 Model S up to the 9’ Model D Concert Grand Piano, and 3 sizes of uprights. The Hamburg factory produces the same lineup of grand pianos plus the 7’5” model C, and 2 sizes of uprights. The Hamburg Model D is without question the world’s most popular concert grand, though in recent years Steinway has received significant competition on the concert stage from other European manufacturers, as well as Yamaha (CF series) and Kawai (Shigeru). New York made grand and upright pianos are available in a variety of finishes.

Both the New York and Hamburg produced pianos are made with high-quality materials, though certain crucial differences exist resulting in a different tonal profile. New York Steinway’s use layers of hard-rock maple for the rim, whereas the Hamburg pianos utilize layers of mahogany and a different species of maple. Soundboards in the New York pianos are made of tapered solid sitka spruce, versus tapered Austrian white spruce in the Hamburg pianos. Steinway builds it’s own action for the New York pianos, as opposed to Renner actions in the Hamburg models. Different hammers and different materials for the bass strings are certain other differentiators.

Some of the similarities between the New York and Hamburg models include hard-rock maple vertically laminated bridges with solid maple cap, Steinway’s patented “Octogrip” pinblock design, and duplex scale in all models.

Many aspects of the modern piano design can be attributed to the early innovations of Steinway. Some of the most notable patented inventions that are still widely utilized today include:

  • Over-stringing of the bass strings above the treble strings in grand pianos to increase bass string length
  • Laminated pin-blocks for better tuning stability, bridges that are vertically laminated (better energy transfer)
  • The invention of the middle “sostenuto” pedal featured in virtually every grand piano constructed today
  • The invention of duplex scale.

Needless to say, calling Steinway’s design innovations influential would be an understatement.


The opinions contained here are based on first-hand experiences with each of these instruments over extended periods of time, and are offered as perspective to those individuals around the world considering one or several of these brands as part of a purchase, or for general interest. We sincerely hope you enjoy our thoughts on these wonderful pianos.

A winding road through piano history

A telling of the story of the piano would be incomplete with a discussion of Steinway. They are to be credited with many things: modernizing piano retail, innovating many approaches now considered bedrock in the areas of advertising and endorsements, and last but not least, creating the quintessential grand piano of the 20th century.

Like many companies that have pioneered in their early days, and gained near monopoly-level success because of it, Steinway’s product quality over the years has strained to keep up with the mythology that the brand generated. Their ‘golden era’ pianos (the Post WWI to the Stockmarket Crash of 1929) were rightly cherished as the world’s finest instrument. Not only was the manufacturing quality superb, but the design innovations placed it decades ahead of many other leading brands of the day.

The company’s ability to sustain that quality level proved difficult during the wider industry’s maturing during the post-WWII period, where quality and innovation gave way to consolidation, less competition, and a robust middle class more interested in modern conveniences rather than large, mechanical 19th-century instruments. Steinway stayed as true to its roots as any firm during this time, but quality became notoriously unreliable (and in their defence, somewhat irrelevant). It’s a testament to their design that they continued to perform relatively well with few durability issues (the Teflon debacle – a multi-decade failed experiment with synthetic bushings – aside). It was also, no doubt, made more difficult by New York City’s post-war decline, organized labour’s increasing influence on wages, and the resulting shortages of affordable, skilled labourers.

Steinway was sold multiple times during this massive reorganization and consolidation of the piano business and would be owned by the likes of Selmer Conn and CBS over the decades.

C&A Program

Amongst several aspects that preserved the company through the 2nd half of the 20th century was their efficient and vigorously enforced concert and artist program. They maintained an emphasis on artist endorsement and piano competitions and pursued exclusivity contracts to ensure that the major music halls of the time remained with the brand. Halls that attempted to buy alternates were faced with the stark reality of not being able to book leading performers of the day who were locked into exclusivity contracts with Steinway. Likewise, artists were incentivized to those contracts with Steinway in return for perks, not the least of which was guaranteeing low-cost access to performance-grade instruments in every major city and town on the touring circuit.

Few would consider risking their “Steinway artist” status knowing they would then be forced to transport their concert grand of choice to every performance. Unlike almost every other instrument in the orchestra, concert grand pianos are massive in comparison, making them costly and very risky to move. Violinists, flutists, bassoonists…., can easily carry their own personal instrument to every performance, while pianists must either rely on what the hall has to offer, or move what they most desire to each performance.

Quite simply, artists are, in most cases, wise to go with the universal Steinway ‘baseline’ rather than to risk being locked out of some halls, or at worst, shouldering the cost and risk of transporting their own instrument or true instrument of choice. Neither scenario is without its risks: in 2020, the world-renowned virtuoso Angela Hewitt, who defiantly refuses to sign exclusivity contracts with any manufacturer, tragically lost her beloved Fazioli grand due to irreparable damage incurred while in transit from a recording studio in Berlin.

Asia Enters The Market

Like many North American piano companies in the 2nd half of the 20th century, Steinway was ill-prepared for Asia’s entry into the industry. The premise that consumers would continue to favour poorly-made American goods at premium prices over imports from Europe or Asia – in any industry – proved badly wrong. Even with equalizing tariffs, customers’ need for quality was antithetical to American industry’s paradigm throughout this period. In Steinway’s case, its manufacturing was inefficient by Japanese standards, and its hold on the industry relied on an absence of credible alternatives. Just as Cadillac or Lincoln weren’t ready for Volkswagen and Toyota, Steinway and Baldwin weren’t ready for Yamaha and Kawai, or Petrof and Schimmel.

To Steinway’s credit, they maintained their pricing and resisted discounting or further watering down the product – a fate that household names like Heintzman and Baldwin would both succumb to – through their tightly-managed network of Steinway Piano Galleries and Steinway Halls (more or less their national showroom network). They introduced the concept of a Steinway as an actual investment (at a time when NY stock trading was highly romanticized) and successfully linked their product to new money affluence. Though this has now been discontinued as official Steinway sales practice due in part to a number of litigations, the myth of appreciating Steinway persists.

Complicating this dynamic is the fact that Steinway & Sons regularly released limited-edition models called ‘Crown Jewel’ collections which actually did appreciate over time due to their uniqueness and scarcity. Though this didn’t apply to their standard black satin fare, the halo effect was effectively exploited by some of their sales staff.

In short, Steinway became a brand of the most extreme contradictions. Many of their concert grands continued to lead the business in musical quality, but smaller models became a source of major quality issues. To consumers, it was the only brand that top artists demanded; for artists, it was the only brand available if you wanted to tour profitably. And perhaps most oddly of all, the company’s two factories were simultaneously both the least consistent (NYC) and most consistent (Hamburg) in the entire high-end piano world. This was particularly inconvenient since the lesser-rated NYC factory had 20x the production capacity as that of the top-rated Hamburg factory.

Present Day

Some of the finest instruments we’ve ever touched here at Merriam have been both restored and new Steinways, as have some of the least impressive. A finely crafted Steinway D, B, or M in our books can rank amongst the very best musical partners if you can find it; locate yourself an excellent tech to keep it there and you’d be a happy owner. On the other hand, for every Model B that impressed us, we come across another 5 that couldn’t sit next to a Shigeru Kawai SK-6 or Schimmel Konzert K213 for almost half the price.

There have definitely been efforts at Steinway, since their sale in the mid-2010s, to improve upon the aesthetic and musical consistency issues, though it still trails European standards by some margin. Other improvements include better finishing of the bottom of the musical instruments, as well as the introduction of Spirio, their branded player-piano system that incorporates fullscreen video and audio tracks that play along with a traditional playback solenoid system. The Steinway & Sons Spirio system is self-billed as “the world’s finest high-resolution player piano”, which features current and posthumous digitized recordings of artists like Art Tatum, Lang Lang, Diana Krall, and many others.

But as is the case with many great historical brands, in our experience a segment of likely Steinway buyers do so for the brand’s historical cache, rather than holding the instruments up to a high musical scrutiny.

Piano Brand Reviews:


NY Steinways and C. Bechstein pianos share several building techniques and are both considered top-tier instruments in the piano world. Besides their generally acknowledged dominance in the US and Europe respectively, resources such as,, Blue Book of Pianos, and many other online resources consistently rate both as peers and dominant companies within the high-end piano industry.

Both pianos are considered ‘concert class’ instruments and are suitable for the most discerning applications. The tonal differences between NY Steinway and C. Bechstein are more notable than the differences with Hamburg Steinway – the NY has a slightly darker, warmer tone than many piano designers attribute to both its exclusive use of hard-rock maple in its rim, as well as its general approach to factory voicing; the Hamburg variant uses a rim construction more aligned with the other high-end European brands like C. Bechstein, which tends to render and project the upper partials slightly better and with more detail.

Bechstein’s produce a crystal-clear treble and mid-range even at a pianissimo, and greater tonal separation in the lower mid, not unlike Bosendorfer’s newer VC series. NY Steinway’s treble is generally strong and rounded with more inharmonicity than the Bechstein – an entirely subjective tonal aspect that few manufacturers agree on, and where some of the greatest variations between brands exist.

Steinway and C. Bechstein are also amongst the only builders that utilize a Treble Bell, a turn-of-the-century innovation that helped builders realize a stiffer and longer-lasting crown in the treble section of the piano.

They also both use laminated capped bridge designs, duplex scale, both make their own hammers, and Steinway and Bechstein pianos for the most 

C Bechstein B 212

part use the same naming conventions, yet another piece of evidence that they’re vying for the same customer worldwide.

Though Steinway has an S / M / L model (one has to wonder….Small, Medium, Large?) for their 5’1″, 5’7″, and 5’11” models, the size of Steinway models and Bechstein models are well aligned as are their naming conventions:  A (~6′), B(~7′), C(~8′), and D(~9′) models.

Piano Brand Reviews:


A comparison of Fazioli and Steinway reveals as much a battle of branding as a battle of pianos.  Steinway continues to pitch itself as the guardian of the old-guard traditional piano world, whereas Fazioli has taken the opposite approach of owning the mantle of new sophistication. 

It’s an apt framing of the dynamic, and the pianos themselves reflect it.  As stated earlier, Steinway grand pianos are forgiving pianos with plenty of mid-range colour and lots of dynamic range…and generally easy to control.  Fazioli is a far tricker piano to manage, with more prominent high-end and a highly exposed playing experience generally. 

We suspect that these differences may exist due to the parts of the tone that each builder has chosen to emphasize. 

Steinway’s use of hard-rock maple throughout the instrument has given a particular woodiness and mid-range character to the tone while de-emphasizing the highest partials within the tone resulting in the masking of some detail.

The Fazioli uses multiple hardwoods, similar to Shigeru Kawai and C. Bechstein rim designs, as well as a complex vertical-laminated bridges, and larger hammers. They also use an exaggerated duplex which – rather than emphasizing the inharmonicity, actually further extends the harmonic range, an interesting colour effect that can come off as overly bright in some contexts.

And in all cases, creates the impression of much more detail.

Although the musical debate continues to rage between these two brands (and the increasingly crowded high-end in general), the concert scene remains largely unchanged. Whether due to genuine artist preference or Steinway’s enticing logistics network, the vast majority of concert pianists still align themselves publicly with Steinway.

Piano Brand Reviews:


The piano industry doesn’t have many scandalous moments, but one of particular ‘note’ occurred in the mid 2000s when, for the first time, industry observer Larry Fine listed Shigeru Kawai and NY Steinway in parallel quality categories as part of his annual listing. Try to imagine the piano business equivalent of Lady Wistledown’s Papers, suddenly revealing that the upstart young duke had upstaged the stogy King at his own ball. 

Not only did this send shockwaves throughout the piano retail universe, but Fine only listed these two pianos in the category – making it impossible to ignore the newly-acknowledged equivalence. It laid bare something most piano industry watchers had known for some time…that Japan had overtaken the US as the more advanced and progressive manufacturing community, and that Japan’s best – arguably the Shigeru Kawai pianos – were now deserving of equal musical consideration to that of NY Steinway…the former leader of the space.

It was a fascinating moment and comparison. The Shigeru Kawai’s at that time were 50% of the price of NY Steinways, and featured designs that were actually closer to that of Hamburg Steinways. They had carbon fibre actions, soundboards that were older and higher-quality, bridges that were more complex and better manufactured, and generally more tonal colour. And perhaps most damaging, they came with an origin story as compelling as Steinway’s….something that past competitors simply couldn’t match.

Shigeru Kawai SK-7

It was also one of the last rating guides Fine would release before switching to the current and somewhat tortured rating system that attempts to blend brand reputation (regardless of present-day quality in some of his categories) and price range (regardless of value for money) with an actual musical performance.


Steinway 451045″Sheraton Satin Ebony$35,300
Sheraton Mahogany$39,100
Sheraton Walnut$39,600
Steinway 109846.5″Satin Ebony$33,300
Steinway K-5252″Satin Ebony$38,800
Steinway Model S5’1″Satin and Polished Ebony$69,700
Polished Ebony w/Sterling Hardware$71,600
Polished White$77,600
Kewazinga Bubinga$86,900
East Indian Rosewood$98,300
Macassar Ebony$107,100
Figured Sapele$86,300
Dark Cherry$87,100
Santos Rosewood$97,600
African Pommele$101,200
Steinway Model M5’7″Satin and Polished Ebony$74,300
Polished Ebony w/Sterling Hardware$76,200
Polished White$84,000
Kewazinga Bubinga$94,400
East Indian Rosewood$106,100
Macassar Ebony$115,900
Figured Sapele$95,500
Dark Cherry$96,100
Santos Rosewood$105,900
African Pommele$109,700
Polished Ebony w/White/Color Pops Accessories$89,100
John Lennon Imagine Polished White$116,300
Onyx Duet Polished Ebony$110,200
Steinway M 1014A5’7″Chippendale Mahogany$103,300
Chippendale Walnut$105,300
M 501A5’7″Louis XV Walnut$132,500
Louis XV East Indian Rosewood$154,100
Steinway Model O5’10.5″Satin and Polished Ebony$83,300
Polished Ebony w/Sterling Hardware$85,200
Polished White$92,600
Kewazinga Bubinga$101,700
East Indian Rosewood$114,900
Macassar Ebony$125,300
Figured Sapele$102,900
Dark Cherry$103,500
Santos Rosewood$114,100
African Pommele$118,900
Polished Ebony w/White/Color Pops Accessories$96,900
John Lennon Imagine Polished White$124,800
Onyx Duet Polished Ebony$115,500
Steinway Model A6’2″Satin and Polished Ebony$96,200
Polished Ebony w/Sterling Hardware$98,100
Polished White$107,600
Kewazinga Bubinga$116,600
East Indian Rosewood$131,700
Macassar Ebony$143,800
Figured Sapele$116,900
Dark Cherry$118,700
Santos Rosewood$131,300
African Pommele$136,700
Polished Ebony w/White/Color Pops Accessories$109,700
John Lennon Imagine Polished White$141,500
Onyx Duet Polished Ebony$126,400
Steinway Model B6’10.5″Satin and Polished Ebony$108,700
Polished Ebony w/Sterling Hardware$112,700
Polished White$121,100
Kewazinga Bubinga$132,300
East Indian Rosewood$150,500
Macassar Ebony$163,200
Figured Sapele$132,300
Dark Cherry$133,100
Santos Rosewood$147,100
African Pommele$153,700
Polished Ebony w/White/Color Pops Accessories$124,600
John Lennon Imagine Polished White$159,400
Onyx Duet Polished Ebony$140,200
Steinway Model D8’11.8″Satin and Polished Ebony$171,100
Polished Ebony w/Sterling Hardware$175,100
Polished White$188,600
Kewazinga Bubinga$211,200
East Indian Rosewood$240,300
Macassar Ebony$259,700
Figured Sapele$203,800
Dark Cherry$207,200
Santos Rosewood$225,900
African Pommele$237,500
Polished Ebony w/White/Color Pops Accessories$179,300
John Lennon Imagine Polished White$219,200
Steinway S-1555’1″Polished Ebony$86,500
Steinway M-1705’7″Polished Ebony$89,200
Steinway O-1805’10.5″Polished Ebony$100,400
Steinway A-1886’2″Polished Ebony$103,100
Steinway B-2116’11”Polished Ebony$118,900
Steinway C-2277’5.5″Polished Ebony$133,800
Steinway D-2748’11.8″Polished Ebony$179,300


1856 – 18801000 – 4500
1900 – 191095000 – 140000
1920 – 1930200000 – 270000
1940 – 1950300000 – 331000
1960 – 1970366000 – 418000
1980 – 1990468500 – 516700
2000 – 2009554000 – 587500
2010 – Present589500+


Tier 1C. BechsteinBosendorferFazioliHamburg Steinway
Upright Models <120cmMillennium 116K, Classic/Contour 118N/AN/AN/A
Upright Models > 120cmClassic/Elegance 124, Concert 8Model 130N/AN/A
Grand Models < 180cmL167Model 155, Model 170VCF156S-155, M-170, O-180
Grand Models > 180cmA192, B212, C234, D282Model 185VC, Model 200, Model 200CS, Model 214VC, Model 214VC CS, Model 225, Model 280VC, Model 290,F183, F212, F228, F278, F308A-188, B-211, C-227, D-274
Rim ConstructionMahogany and Red BeechSpruce and Red BeechMaple and MahoganyMaple and Beech
Soundboard MaterialItalian Red Spruce from the Val Di’ FiemmeAustrian White SpruceItalian Red Spruce from the Val Di’ FiemmeSolid White Spruce
Soundboard ElevationMinimum 1,000 MetersHigh-Altitude (Specific Height Undisclosed)Minimum 1,000 Meters?
Tonal CharacteristicsExtremely Dynamic, Colourful and ClearDelicate yet Highly RichPowerful, ColourfulPowerful, Clean and Crisp
ActionBechstein ‘Gold Line’ ActionAction Made by BosendorferRennerRenner
HammersDark Walnut – Made by BechsteinRenner Underfelted ‘Orange’ HammersRennerRenner High-Compression Weikert Felt
Warranty5 Years Parts & Labour10 Year Parts & Labour10 Year Parts & Labour10 Year Parts & Labour
Backpost / Beam ConstructionReinforced Spruce Radial Frame with Dove-tailed JointsNot AvailableRadial Spruce Beam Frame with Triple Joinery?
Rim Construction (Grands Only)Mahogany and Red BeechSpruce and Red BeechMaple and MahoganyMaple and Beech
Duplex Scaling (Grands Only)Front & Rear Duplex?Double Duplex ScaleDuplex Scale
Average Hrs Production (Grands)420-550 Hours~500 Hrs500+ HrsNot Available
Average Hrs Production (Uprights)180 HoursNot AvailableN/ANot Available

Tier 2August ForsterBluthnerEstoniaShigeru KawaiYamaha CFNY Steinway
CountryGermanyGermanyEstoniaJapanJapanUnited States
Upright Models <120cm116D, CN/AN/AN/AN/A
Upright Models > 120cm125, 134A, B, SN/AN/AN/AK52
Grand Models < 180cm17011, 10L168N/AN/AS, M, O
Grand Models > 180cm190, 215, 2756, 4, 2, 1L190, L210, L225, L274SK2, SK3, SK5, SK6, SK7, SKEXCF4, CF6, CFXA, B, D
Rim ConstructionBeechBeechLaminated BirchMahogany and Hard Rock MapleMaple & MahoganyHard Rock Maple
Soundboard MaterialSolid Mountain SpruceSolid SpruceGerman Solid SpruceSolid Sitka Spruce, Ezo Spruce (larger models)Solid European SpruceSolid Sitka Spruce
Soundboard Elevation??????
Tonal CharacteristicsDeep, Dark & Clear with a Powerfull BassDark, Warm and LyricalWarm, Sonorous and DynamicVery Dynamic, Colourful, Dark and WarmBright, Clear with SustainResonant, Powerful Bass, Colourful
ActionRennerRennerRennerMillennium III Carbon FiberYamaha Balanced ActionSteinway Accelerated Action
HammersPremium RennerAbel Angled HammersRenner BlueMahogany, Made by KawaiPremium Balanced HammersHard Rock Maple
Warranty5 Years Parts & Labour10 Years Parts & Labour10 Years Parts & Labour10 Years Parts & Labour10 Years Parts & Labour5 Years Parts & Labour
Backpost / Beam ConstructionSpruceSpruceSpruce, Focused Beam ConstructionSpruceDovetailed SpruceSpruce
Rim Construction (Grands Only)BeechBeechLaminated BirchMaple and MahoganyMaple & MahoganyHard Rock Maple
Duplex Scaling (Grands Only)?Aliquot StringingFront & Rear DuplexFull Length DuplexDuplex ScalingFull Dup,ex
Average Hrs Production (Grands)??????
Average Hrs Production (Uprights)???N/A??

*Disclaimer: Merriam Pianos offers the above information for the educational benefit of customers world-wide, and does not constitute an endorsement by – or imply representation of – the various manufacturers. For a full selection of the brands Merriam Pianos proudly represents, please click here.

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