Music has been in existence for a long time and has been part of human civilization. Certain trends have been both noticed and others have gone unnoticed when it comes to music and gender.
In the past, there seemed to be a universally accepted standard of who should play which instrument. For instance, there were some instruments that were considered feminine while others were considered masculine. Surprisingly, there are still some places where this gender divide is strongly felt. However, let us first take a look at what was happening in the past.
The Acceptable Instrument for Women
Historically, the piano was usually played by women. The following post describes this in more detail:
Piano instruments were considered the feminine musical instrument “par excellence” in the nineteenth century.
So much so, in fact, that during the century it became a norm for all women belonging to the bourgeoisie and upper classes to have a decent command of the piano. This was not just the case in England, from which most of Meling’s sources are collected, but also in Norway.
“No cultured house should be without a pianoforte… No Lady, who wishes to be a Lady, can admit to not being able to play the pianoforte, and no Gentleman can allow its disregard,” the Norwegian author Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson wrote in 1855. Via Science Nordic
There seemed to be a general feeling that some instruments were not meant for the female body as they would cause the player to look “immodest”, as explained below:
The flute, the violin, and the oboe are “highly unbecoming to the fair sex”, the music theorist John Essex wrote in 1721.
The oboe was particularly masculine; it would look indecent in the mouth of a woman. And the flute would take away “many of the juices better suited to whet one’s appetite and advance digestion.” Via Science Nordic
The debate rages
Not only was this mentality prevalent in the 18th century within England, even in places like Germany, we see that other people disqualified other instruments as improper for women.
“Horn and cello unsuited for the female body”
The German Carl Ludwig Junker was also plain on which instruments women were wise to stay clear of in his book on women and music from 1783: the horn, the cello, the double bass, the bassoon, and the trumpet were all highly unsuitable for the female body, female fashion, and the female character. Via Science Nordic
If you listen to the reasons behind these beliefs, you will see that at the time, these may have been genuine concerns that were being considered in that social setting. Some of them were:
Making large bodily movements when playing string and wing instruments – not very lady-like. A too strong and powerful sound did not agree with a woman’s modest and mild character.
Drums and trumpets, Junker reminds us, are used in the military, and the horn is used for hunting, and are thus not to be considered feminine.
Besides, some playing positions were directly immoral, such as distorting ones face in order to play a wind instrument, pressing ones lips together and supporting the sound with the stomach muscles. This might give the impression of an indecent woman. . Via Science Nordic
The Current Situation
People in this generation may hear the remarks made in the 18th century and wonder what was going on in those days. Currently, we see people of both genders playing all instruments without discrimination. Ladies are playing drums and bass guitars while men are playing the piano and harp without much of a problem. However, the “stereotypes” may not have completely let us free, as the post below describes:
Every fall, music teacher Alex Mueller watches fifth graders at Riderwood and Warren elementary schools in Maryland choose an instrument they’ll focus on.
And almost every year — without fail — fifth-grade boys want to play trumpet and fifth-grade girls choose the flute.
“Obviously there is something going on,” Mueller said. Via BSO Music
There probably remains a lot to be done in this area of music and gender, and efforts are being made to ensure that this issue is addressed as the post below explains:
Gender Equality in Music: The Beginnings of a New Movement Involving Men and Women
At this year’s Liverpool Sound City conference, I chaired a panel of music industry representatives who are each, in different ways, taking positive action that will help women to sustain a career in the music industry. Unlike most discussions about women in music, 50% of our panellists – and our audience – were men; something that’s unusual but essential if we want to change things from within, with input from those who currently hold the most power. Via Huffington Post
Although there is still much to be done, it’s clear that we’ve come a long way in terms of non-discriminatory music.
Featured Image: Image Credit
Phillip McKnight, founder of Music Academy for Guitarists says Taylor Swift is the one of the reasons more women are wanting to play guitar. pic.twitter.com/uS2yLCvjl0
— Pop Crave (@PopCrave) October 21, 2016
The music industry is saturated with great art, so I’m no longer supporting misogynist music.
I miss when men wrote about respecting women.
— ? (@iamARSMAGNA) October 15, 2016
Why has classical music been so gender-biased for so long?
Hurrah for Radio 3 and its (long-overdue) efforts to give us music not just performed by women but composed, and conducted, by them too. Last year’s innovative day of programming for International Women’s Day introduced us to composers many of us had never heard of, such as Elisabeth Jacquet de la Guerre and Barbara Strozzi, Charlotte Bray and Anna Clyne. Yet to the surprise of even the most sceptical critics, the day was a huge success, proving that some of this music is really good. Via Spectator
Gender In The Music Industry
Gender inequality is a big issue in the music industry. At first glance, it may not seem so. Names like Aretha Franklin, Taylor Swift, and Beyonce have become synonymous with success. Billboard’s profile of the fifty most successful women in music impresses. Jody Gerson, first in command at the Universal Music Publishing Group since January 2015, was a former co-president and head of the West Coast office at Sony/ATV. Julie Greenwald is chairman and C.O.O. at Atlantic Records. Michele Anthony is executive vice president at Universal Music Group. Many more make the industry proud. Via Hypebot
Conceptions of gender in music education
Boys are conspicuous by their absence in basic music education. This phenomenon is not uniquely Finnish; it has been a source of concern for music education scholars internationally for quite some time. While music playschools have an equal number of girls and boys, in instrumental studies the gender balance tilts alarmingly, fewer than one third of students being boys. The ArtsEqual research initiative coordinated by the Sibelius Academy of the University of the Arts Helsinki (see also Democracy in the music education of the future by Tuulikki Laes in FMQ Spring/2016) involves, among other things, studying how social and cultural mechanisms govern the musical learning paths of children and adolescents. Via FMQ